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Title: Securitizing the Colour Revolution: Assessing the political role of triads in Hong Kong’s Umbrella Movement
Author(s): Lo, Tit Wing 
Author(s): Kwok, S. I.
Garrett, D.
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Journal: The British Journal of Criminology 
Volume: 61
Issue: 6
Start page: 1521
End page: 1539
In Hong Kong’s Umbrella Movement, the use of Chinese triads to attack protestors has attracted international attention, forcing the regime to constrain further acts of grand illegitimate violence. Research suggests that triads were used as ‘thugs-for-hire’ by the regime to achieve political ends. The present study aims to examine why the triads were hired and what their specific roles and motivations were. It concludes that triads acted as non-state securitization actors, agent provocateurs or extralegal protectors depending on several factors, such as financial incentives, being stakeholders in occupied sites, business interests in mainland China and individuals’ political ideology. It suggests that triads were used as vigilantes against the threats of Western-instigated Color Revolution and hybrid warfare targeting China.
DOI: 10.1093/bjc/azab034
CIHE Affiliated Publication: No
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