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Title: Translation, adaptation, and validation of the behavioral pain scale and the critical-care pain observational tools in Taiwan
Author(s): Smith, Graeme Drummond 
Author(s): Hsiung, N.-H.
Yang, Y.
Lee, M. S.
Dalal, K.
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: Dovepress
Journal: Journal of Pain Research 
Volume: 9
Start page: 661
End page: 669
This study describes the cultural adaptation and testing of the behavioral pain scale (BPS) and the critical-care pain observation tools (CPOT) for pain assessment in Taiwan. The cross-cultural adaptation followed the steps of translation, including forward translation, back-translation, evaluation of the translations by a committee of experts, adjustments, and then piloting of the prefinal versions of the BPS and the CPOT. A content validity index was used to assess content validities of the BPS and the CPOT, with 0.80 preset as the level that would be regarded as acceptable. The principal investigator then made adjustments when the content validity index was <0.80. The pilot test was performed with a sample of ten purposively selected patients by 2 medical staff from a medical care center in Taiwan. The BPS and the CPOT are adequate instruments for the assessment of pain levels in patients who cannot communicate due to sedation and ventilation treatments.
DOI: 10.2147/JPR.S91036
CIHE Affiliated Publication: No
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