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Title: Enhancing holistic well-being of students in an institute of tertiary education: Effectiveness of body-mind-spirit workshops
Author(s): Ng, Anna Hoi Nga 
Boey, Kam Weng 
Issue Date: 2021
Conference: FSTE Conference: Emotional and Mental Well-being for Whole Person Development 
Body-mind-spirit (BMS) model of intervention proposes that an equilibrium of body (physical states), mind (emotion and social relationships), and spirit (life values and philosophies) is essential for holistic well-being. The intervention integrates clinical practices from the East and West, with an emphasis on the balance of body, mind, and spirit. Previous studies indicated that BMS model of intervention was efficacious in enhancing resilience and mental health status of patients in clinical settings. It was also effective in reducing stress experienced by divorced women, infertile couples, trauma survivors, and children with post-traumatic stress disorder.

This study evaluated the effectiveness of BMS model of intervention in promoting holistic well-being of tertiary education students. Participants were students of an institute of self-funded tertiary education in Hong Kong. Evaluation of outcome was assessed by Holistic Well-being Scale which consisted of 30 items measuring equanimity (i.e., nonattachment, general vitality, mindful awareness, and spiritual self-care) and affliction (i.e., emotional vulnerability, bodily irritability, and spiritual disorientation). Five workshops were organized, with each workshop lasted for two days. The workshop involved bodily exercises, meditation, relaxation, singing, drawing, letter writing, sharing of experience, etc. These activities were structured in 4 sessions: Session 1 (Awareness of self and others) aimed to foster mindful awareness and spiritual self-care; Session 2 (Discovering inner self) was organized to enhance general vitality and spiritual orientation; Session 3 (Love, care, and forgiveness) aimed to cultivate nonattachment and resolve emotional afflictions; and Session 4 (Transformation and preparation for the future) was arranged for self-affirmation and body-mind-spirit integration.

The intervention group consisted of 67 students (age = 21.4±2.0, 34.3% males), with 12 to 15 students participated in each workshop. Another 64 students (age = 22.1±3.7, 40.3% males) served as a comparison group. Results indicated that students participated in the workshop showed significant enhancement of equanimity in nonattachment, general vitality, mindful awareness, and spiritual self-care. They also experienced a lessening of affliction, with significant decline in emotional vulnerability, bodily irritability, and spiritual disorientation. No significant improvement was observed in the comparison group. Effectiveness of BMS workshop in promoting holistic well-being of tertiary education students was empirically demonstrated.
CIHE Affiliated Publication: Yes
Appears in Collections:HL Publication

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